Balance Sheet: Definition, Example, Elements of a Balance Sheet

income tax
cash receipts

Rommel discovered that a check written in June for P200,000 in payment of an account payable, had been recorded in the Company’s records as P20,000. Included with the June bank statement was NSF check for P250,000 that Rommel had received from a customer on June 26. So, the reduced amounts are then combined with the net sales.

Current asset accounts include cash, accounts receivable, inventory, and prepaid expenses, while long-term asset accounts include long-term investments, fixed assets, and intangible assets. With this information, stakeholders can also understand the company’s prospects. For instance, the balance sheet can be used as proof of creditworthiness when the company is applying for loans. By seeing whether current assets are greater than current liabilities, creditors can see whether the company can fulfill its short-term obligations and how much financial risk it is taking. A balance sheet serves as reference documents for investors and other stakeholders to get an idea of the financial health of an organization.

Cash Ratio

In India, follow Ind-AS, which simply means Indian accounting standards. Here’s how the cash and cash equivalents definition has been prescribed and defined by the accounting standards in India. It should not be too risky and there should be a little risk of changes in their value. It means that the equity shares cannot be classified as cash equivalents. But some are the preferred shares which are purchased before the Redemption date that are classified as cash equivalents.


While this ratio provides an interesting liquidity perspective, its utility is restricted. Cash Flow Statement is the financial statement which presents total data. It includes the cash flows a company receives through ongoing operations and outside funding sources, and any cash outflows to cover business operations and financing throughout the period of delivery. In other words, the cash flow statement is the financial statement estimating cash produced or used by the firm at the current moment.

Cash Flow from Operating Activities mean deposits which can be withdrawn without prior notice and penalty charges. Generally long term deposits are placed for a specific period in banks and these cannot be withdrawn without penalty, hence it cannot be classified as cash. For other entities– An accounting policy choice needs to be made.

Exceptions can exist for short-term debt instruments such as Treasury-bills if they’re being used as collateral for an outstanding loan or line of credit. In other words, there can be no restrictions on converting any of the securities listed as cash and cash equivalents. Ind AS 7 prescribes standards for the presentation of information about the cash flows of an entity during a specific period according to operating, investing and financing activities. A deposit of P1,000,000 that was placed in the bank’s night depository on June 30does not appear on the bank statement. The bank statement shows on June 30, the bank collected note for Rommel and credited the proceeds of P950,000 to the Company’s account.


If a company intends to demonstrate a high cash ratio to the outside world, it must have a lot of cash on hand at the measurement date, possibly more than is prudent. Another issue is that the ratio only gauges cash balances at a certain point in time, which might change rapidly when receivables and suppliers are paid. As a result, the quick ratio, which includes accounts receivable in the numerator, is a superior measure of liquidity.

Cash and Cash Equivalents (CCE): Definition and Example

Any additional information may be relevant to users in understanding the financial position and liquidity of an enterprise. If it is practicable to separate the tax payments among different activities, it should be separated and presented accordingly under the respective activity. An asset is something that the company owns and that is beneficial for the growth of the business. Assets can be classified based on convertibility, physical existence, and usage. Acquisition of assets by assuming directly liabilities or by a finance lease.

  • Cash is a form of money that a company can use to run its business.
  • The intent behind maintaining cash equivalents is to fund short-term cash obligations.
  • These refer to the acquisition and disposal of long-term assets and other investments that are not included under cash or cash equivalents.
  • Nothing contained in the articles should be construed as business, legal, tax, accounting, investment or other advice or as an advertisement or promotion of any project or developer or locality.
  • This information helps investors to understand a company’s financial status, by providing an accurate account of its various inward and outward cash flows.

Please read the scheme information and other related documents carefully before investing. Please consider your specific investment requirements before choosing a fund, or designing a portfolio that suits your needs. Cash is a form of paper that includes coins and currency notes. A Demand Deposit is a type of account where the funds may be withdrawn at any time without notifying the institution.

In monetary funding, where funds are raised, it is known as “cash in”, while where dividends are paid, this is known as “cash out”. Cash and cash equivalents are reported as current assets on a balance sheet. These alterations are termed as ‘cash flows’, and they are noted down on accounting ledger.

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These items are liquid money or components that can be feasibly turned into money. Cash equivalents, since are short term in nature and there should not be many fluctuations, the instruments should be of least to insignificant risk and should be readily convertible to cash. Hence, mostly all investments that qualify as cash equivalents have a maturity of less than three months. In simple words, cash and cash equivalents are those assets which are immediately converted into cash. In case, if a company falls due, it should have sufficient cash and cash equivalents to meet its urgent liabilities. Cash and cash equivalents are the assets owned by the company, will be shown on the top of the balance sheet.

It enables them to compare current assets and liabilities to determine the business’s liquidity, or calculate the rate at which the company generates returns. Comparing two or more balance sheets from different points in time can also show how a business has grown. Moreover, if it is much higher than the industry standards then it is a matter of concern. High cash ratios may indicate that a company is inefficient in its cash management. It could also imply that the company is not realising the potential benefit of short-term investments.

They are trade what is included in cash and cash equivalents that are central to an enterprise, such as producing, allotting, retailing, and marketing of goods or services. Operating activities are a firms primary sources of income and spending. Operating activities in the cash flow statement consist of various uses of cash from a firms operational activities, as well as its sources.

About Bandhan Bank

In this case, the company can pay off all short-term debt while still having cash on hand. These securities are share investments in entities that are traded in the Philippine Stock Exchange. As a result, the shares are very actively traded in the market.